Letter R


A rise in prices following a decline in a market.


A coin which only a small number exist. See Scarce.

Rarity Scale

Estimate of the surviving population of a coin.

Unique: One known
R-8: Estimated two or three known (Excessively Rare)
R-7: (High) Estimated four to six know (Extremely Rare)
R-7: (Low) Estimated six to 12 known (Very Rare)
R-6: Estimated 13 to 30 known (Rare)
R-5: Estimated 31 to 75 known
R-4: Estimated 76 to 200 known
R-3: Estimated 201 to 500 known
R-2: Estimated 501 to 1,250 known
R-1: Estimated over 1,250 known


A coin that has not been graded, certified, and placed in a tamper-proof capsule by a grading service.

Red Book

A Guide Book of United States Coins.


An industrial facility where a substance is refined


Any part of coin’s design which is raised. See High Relief, Low Relief.


An area of a coin which has been worked on to fix a defect. Repairs must be mentioned in the description of the coin. See Altered Date, Mint Mark.


A copy so marked as required by law, with an “R” or a “C.” See Copy.


New coins made from old dies. They usually have the same specification as the original coins. Restrikes are considered bullion coins because such a large number are made that they have no numismatic value.


The back of a coin. The side usually opposite from the portrait or date.


A groove in the bottom of an inclined trough or sluice, for arresting gold contained in sands or gravels.

Rim Nick

An abrasion or cut into the rim or edge of a coin, usually occurring through contact with another coin or coins (as in a bag of coins).

Roll (of coins)

Original coins, assembled at the time of manufacture, usually by a bank and then placed into a paper tube. There are, for example, 20 dollars in a roll.

Rolled Gold Plate (RGP)

A solid layer of gold (typically constituting at least 5% of the item’s total weight) mechanically bonded to a base of either sterling silver or some base metal.


Round pieces of metal that are usually about the size of a U.S. Silver Dollar. Rounds have no face value and can be minted privately or by government mints.

Royal Canadian Mint

The official mint of Canada, responsible for the production and distribution of Canada’s coinage.